Ernst Wilhelm Leberecht Tempel

Tempel at Marseille

 

Obituary: MNRAS 50, 179 (1890); AN 121, 95 (1889)

Tempel discovered 150 NGC objects. NGC 1435, the famous "Merope nebula" was found with a 4" refractor at Venice. All other were found at Arcetri Observatory near Florence using the main instrument, a 11" f/19 refractor, called "Amici I" by Temple. Only NGC 2441 was discovered with the smaller "Amici II" refractor (9.4" f/13.4). 112 objects are "real" (109 galaxies, 2 reflexion nebulae, 1 planetary); the rest are stars (34) or "not found" (4). The references (except Ref. 0 and 2a) are numbered following Dreyer (T I = 1thru T X = 10).

Object
Con
Date
Type
Rem
Ref
NGC 47
CET
1886 ? galaxy
NGC 58 Swift 1886
 
NGC 54
CET
1886 ? galaxy    
NGC 113
CET
Aug. 27, 1876 galaxy  
1, 4
NGC 114
CET
Sep. 27, 1880 galaxy  
4
NGC 118
CET
Sep. 27, 1880 galaxy  
4
NGC 120
CET
Sep. 27, 1880 galaxy  
4
NGC 122
CET
Sep. 27, 1880 star  
4
NGC 123
CET
Sep. 27, 1880 star  
4
NGC 124
CET
Sep. 27, 1880 galaxy  
4
NGC 156
CET
1882 2 stars  
5
NGC 158
CET
1882 2 stars  
5
NGC 165
CET
1882 galaxy  
5
NGC 195
CET
1877 galaxy  
1
NGC 309
CET
1877 galaxy  
1
NGC 333
CET
1877 galaxy  
1
NGC 338
PSC
1877 galaxy
Stephan 1882
1
NGC 464
AND
1882 2 stars  
5
NGC 577
CET
Aug. 14, 1877 galaxy
NGC 580 Tempel 1877
1, 4
NGC 707
CET
Nov. 13, 1879 galaxy  
4
NGC 926
CET
1877 galaxy  
1
NGC 934
CET
1877 galaxy  
1
NGC 976
ARI
1877 galaxy  
1
NGC 1015
CET
Dec. 27, 1875 galaxy  
1, 5
NGC 1435
TAU
Oct. 19, 1859 reflection nebula  
0
NGC 1443
ERI
1882 star  
5
NGC 1519
ERI
Jan. 2, 1878 galaxy  
1, 5
NGC 1530
CAM
1877 galaxy  
1
NGC 1544
CEP
1877 galaxy  
1
NGC 1560
CAM
Aug. 1, 1883 galaxy  
9
NGC 1573
CAM
Aug. 1, 1883 galaxy  
9
NGC 1723
ERI
Jan. 12, 1882 galaxy
Barnard 1885
5
NGC 2067
ORI
1877 reflection nebula  
1
NGC 2256
CAM
Aug. 1, 1883 galaxy  
9
NGC 2258
CAM
Aug. 1, 1883 galaxy  
9
NGC 2314
CAM
Aug. 1, 1883 galaxy  
9
NGC 2336
CAM
1877 galaxy  
1
NGC 2441
CAM
Aug. 8, 1882 galaxy  
6
NGC 2460
CAM
Aug. 11, 1882 galaxy  
6
NGC 2551
CAM
Aug. 9, 1882 galaxy
6
NGC 2630
UMA
1883 not found  
9
NGC 2631
UMA
1883 not found  
9
NGC 2633
CAM
Aug. 11, 1882 galaxy  
6, 9
NGC 2634
CAM
Aug. 11, 1882 galaxy  
6, 9
NGC 2636
CAM
Jul. 27, 1883 galaxy  
9
NGC 2646
CAM
Jul. 27, 1883 galaxy  
9
NGC 2653
CAM
Aug. 18, 1882 2 stars  
6
NGC 2654
UMA
Aug. 18, 1882 galaxy  
6
NGC 2685
UMA
Aug. 18, 1882 galaxy  
6
NGC 2700
HYA
1886 ? star    
NGC 2702
HYA
1886 ? star    
NGC 2703
HYA
1886 ? 2 stars    
NGC 2705
HYA
1886 ? star    
NGC 2707
HYA
1886 ? star    
NGC 2919
LEO
Feb. 1, 1877 galaxy  
1, 5
NGC 2940
LEO
1877 galaxy  
1
NGC 3375
SEX
Feb. 21, 1878 galaxy
Stephan 1880
1, 5
NGC 3427
LEO
1877 galaxy
Todd 1877
1, 5
NGC 3494
LEO
1882 not found  
5
NGC 3537
CRT
Feb. 7, 1878 galaxy
Common 1880
1, 5
NGC 3580
LEO
1877 galaxy  
1
NGC 3664
LEO
Mar. 16, 1879 galaxy  
2
NGC 3704
CRT
Feb. 23, 1878 galaxy
Common 1880
1, 5
NGC 3707
CRT
Feb. 23, 1878 galaxy
Common 1880
5
NGC 3793
UMA
1882 star  
5
NGC 3797
UMA
1882 star  
5
NGC 3836
CRT
Apr. 29, 1877 galaxy  
1, 4
NGC 3959
CRT
May 19, 1881 galaxy  
5
NGC 3967
CRT
May 19, 1881 galaxy  
5
NGC 4164
VIR
Mar. 22, 1878 galaxy  
1, 5
NGC 4166
COM
Mar. 15, 1885 galaxy  
9
NGC 4186
COM
1877 galaxy  
1
NGC 4240
VIR
May, 20, 1875 galaxy
NGC 4243 Swift 1886; Common 1880
1, 5
NGC 4289
VIR
1877 galaxy  
1
NGC 4308
COM
Feb. 17, 1882 galaxy  
5
NGC 4315
VIR
Mar. 22, 1878 2 stars  
5
NGC 4316
VIR
Mar. 17, 1882 galaxy
Stephan 1884
5
NGC 4322
COM
1882 star  
5
NGC 4323
COM
1882 galaxy  
5
NGC 4327
COM
1882 4 stars  
5
NGC 4360
VIR
1877 galaxy
Stephan 1884
1
NGC 4397
COM
1877 3 stars  
1
NGC 4533
VIR
1877 galaxy  
1
NGC 4554
VIR
1882 not found  
5
NGC 4562
COM
1882 galaxy  
5
NGC 4663
VIR
1882 galaxy
IC 811 Bigourdan 1891
5
NGC 4716
VIR
Apr. 12, 1882 galaxy  
5
NGC 4717
VIR
Apr. 12, 1882 galaxy  
5
NGC 4722
CRV
1882 galaxy
IC 3833 Bigourdan 1897
5
NGC 4723
CRV
1882 galaxy  
5
NGC 4726
CRV
1882 galaxy  
5
NGC 4757
VIR
1882 galaxy  
5
NGC 4761
VIR
1882 galaxy  
5
NGC 4764
VIR
1882 galaxy  
5
NGC 4766
VIR
1882 galaxy  
5
NGC 4768
VIR
1882 star  
5
NGC 4769
VIR
1882 star  
5
NGC 4780
VIR
1882 galaxy  
5
NGC 4792
CRV
1882 galaxy  
5
NGC 4820
VIR
1882 galaxy  
5
NGC 4822
VIR
Apr. 21, 1882 galaxy  
5
NGC 4823
VIR
1882 galaxy  
5
NGC 4829
VIR
1882 galaxy  
5
NGC 4830
VIR
May 26, 1880 galaxy  
4, 5
NGC 4836
VIR
Apr. 19, 1882 galaxy  
5
NGC 4844
VIR
Apr. 19, 1882 star  
5
NGC 4847
VIR
Apr. 19, 1882 galaxy  
5
NGC 4855
VIR
Apr. 19, 1882 galaxy  
5
NGC 4887
VIR
Apr. 21, 1882 galaxy  
5
NGC 4891
VIR
Apr. 21, 1882 star  
5
NGC 4897
VIR
Apr. 21, 1882 galaxy  
5
NGC 4920
VIR
1882 galaxy
IC 4134 Bigourdan 1897
5
NGC 4982
VIR
1878 4 stars  
5
NGC 5006
VIR
1882 galaxy  
5
NGC 5022
VIR
1882 galaxy
Stone 1886
5
NGC 5028
VIR
May 12, 1882 galaxy  
5
NGC 5058
VIR
Jun. 2, 1883 galaxy  
7
NGC 5167
VIR
Jun. 7, 1883 galaxy  
7
NGC 5178
VIR
May 11, 1883 galaxy  
8
NGC 5409
BOO
Apr. 25, 1883 galaxy  
6, 8
NGC 5411
BOO
Apr. 25, 1883 galaxy  
8
NGC 5414
BOO
Apr. 25, 1883 galaxy  
6
NGC 5423
BOO
Apr. 25, 1883 galaxy  
6, 8
NGC 5424
BOO
Apr. 25, 1883 galaxy  
6, 8
NGC 5428
VIR
1882 2 stars  
5
NGC 5429
VIR
1882 2 stars  
5
NGC 5431
BOO
Apr. 25, 1883 galaxy  
8
NGC 5432
VIR
1882 2 stars  
5
NGC 5434
BOO
Apr. 25, 1883 galaxy  
6, 8
NGC 5435
VIR
1882 2 stars  
5
NGC 5436
BOO
Jun. 28, 1883 galaxy  
7
NGC 5437
BOO
Jun. 28, 1883 galaxy
IC 4365 Bigourdan 1897
7
NGC 5465
VIR
1882 star  
5
NGC 5467
VIR
1882 star
IC 973 Bigourdan 1891
5
NGC 5469
BOO
1883 galaxy  
8
NGC 5562
BOO
Jun. 28, 1883 galaxy  
8
NGC 5796
LIB
May 23, 1884 galaxy
10
NGC 5871
VIR
1882 star  
5
NGC 6309
OPH
1876 planetary  
1, 2a, 5
NGC 7327
PEG
1882 star  
5
NGC 7338
PEG
1882 2 stars  
5
NGC 7378
AQR
Jun. 19, 1879 galaxy  
3, 4
NGC 7450
AQR
Nov. 19, 1876 galaxy  
1, 4
NGC 7520
AQR
1877 star  
1
NGC 7529
PEG
Jul. 2, 1880 galaxy  
4
NGC 7607
PEG
Aug. 5, 1880 2 stars  
4
NGC 7712
PEG
1877 galaxy  
1
NGC 7717
AQR
1877 galaxy  
1
NGC 7730
AQR
1877 galaxy  
1

The following table lists all objects, where Tempel is mentioned by Dreyer, but were discovered by others (due to identities) or found twice by Tempel. In some cases Tempel was beaten only by a few days (exact date given).


Object
Identity
Discoverer
Con
Type Date (T)
Rem
Ref (T)
NGC 316
 
PSC
star Aug. 29, 1877    
NGC 580
NGC 577
Tempel 1877
CET
galaxy 1877
Swift 1886
1
NGC 787
 
Peters 1865
CET
galaxy Nov. 9, 1879  
1
NGC 1016
 
Marth 1863
CET
galaxy 1877  
4
NGC 1446
 
Dreyer 1877
ERI
star 1882  
1
NGC 2146
 
CAM
galaxy 1877  
5
NGC 2268
 
Borrelly 1870-72
CAM
galaxy 1877  
1
NGC 2276
 
Winnecke 1876
CEP
galaxy 1877  
1
NGC 2300
 
Borrelly 1872
CEP
galaxy 1877
Winnecke 1876
1
NGC 2720
 
Marth 1864
CNC
galaxy 1877  
1
NGC 3328
 
Peters 1880
LEO
2 stars 1882  
1
NGC 3419
 
Marth 1864
LEO
galaxy Mar. 15, 1876  
5
NGC 3598
 
Marth 1865
LEO
galaxy 1877  
1, 5
NGC 3641
 
Marth 1865
LEO
galaxy 1877  
1
NGC 4307
 
Peters 1860
VIR
galaxy Jun. 7, 1883  
7
NGC 4802
NGC 4804
CRV
galaxy Apr. 20, 1882  
5
NGC 5165
 
Burnham May 5, 1883
VIR
galaxy May 11, 1883  
8
NGC 5171
 
Hough May 5, 1883
VIR
galaxy May 11, 1883  
8
NGC 5179
 
Burnham May 5, 1883
VIR
galaxy May 11, 1883  
8
NGC 5438
NGC 5446
W. Herschel
BOO
galaxy Jun. 28, 1883  
7
NGC 5191
 
Hough May 5, 1883
VIR
galaxy May 11, 1883  
8
NGC 5472
 
Lord Rosse 1855
VIR
galaxy 1882  
5
NGC 5534
 
Stephan Apr. 24, 1881
VIR
galaxy Apr. 29, 1881  
5
NGC 7620
 
Marth 1864
PEG
galaxy 1877  
1
NGC 7664
 
Stephan 1876
PEG
galaxy 1877  
1
NGC 7683
 
Ferrari 1865-66
PEG
galaxy 1877  
1

References: [0] Schreiben des Herrn Wilh. Tempel and den Herausgeber, AN [1290] 54, 285 (1861); [1] Schreiben des Herrn W. Tempel an den Herausgeber, AN [2212] 93, 49-62 (1878); [2] Beobachtung des Brorsen'schen Cometen und eines neuen Nebelflecks, AN [2253] 94, 335 (1879); [2a] Wiederauffindung und Beobachtung des Cometen II 1867, angestellt auf der Sternwarte Arcetri, AN [2269] 95, 199-202 (1879); [3] Schreiben des Herrn W. Tempel and den Herausgeber, AN [2284] 96, 61-64 (1880); [4] Beobachtung, angestellt auf der Sternwarte Arcetri bei Florenz, AN [2347] 98, 299-304 (1881); [5] Neue Nebelflecke, aufgefunden und beobachtet auf der Sternwarte zu Arcetri, AN [2439] 102, 225-238 (1882); [6] Einige neue Nebel und ein Nebelnest, AN [2511] 105, 235-238 (1883); [7] Beobachtung von Cometen und Nebelflecken, angestellt auf der Sternwarte Arcetri, AN [2522] 106, 27-30 (1883); [8] Notiz über einige neue und ältere Nebel, AN [2527] 106, 107-110 (1883); [9] Neue Nebel, AN [2660] 111, 315 (1885); [10] Notiz über verschiedene neue Nebel, AN [2691] 112, 47 (1885)

 

Arcetri Observatory and 11" f/19 Amici-Refractor