Edward Emerson Barnard

 

Obituary: MNRAS 84, 221 (1924); ApJ 58, 1 (1923); PASP 35, 87 (1923); AN 218, 241 & 247 (1923)

Barnard discovered 19 NGC- and 131 IC-objects (Tab. 1). The NGC-objects were found visually with the 5" and 6" refractors at Vanderbilt Observatory, Nashville. Some ICs were found at Lick by photography with the 6" Willard lens, or visually with the 12" and 36" refractors. The 10" and 40" are refractors at Yerkes; were the former ist the famos "Bruce astrograph". 84 objetcs are galaxies, 40 are galactic nebulae, 4 are planetaries, 8 are open clusters; the rest are stars (9) or not found (5). Objects with no reference were communicated by letter to Dreyer.

Tab. 1: Barnard's discoveries (in column "Instr.": Rr = refractor, v = visual, p = photographic; Ref. see Tab. 3).

Object
Con
Date
Instr
Type
Ref
Rem
NGC 281
CAS
Nov. 16, 1881
6" Rr v
emission nebula
2, 8
IC 11 Barnard
NGC 1255
FOR
Aug. 30, 1883
6" Rr v
galaxy
2, 5, 8
Stone 1886
NGC 1292
FOR
 
 
 galaxy
 
 
NGC 1297
ERI
 
 
 galaxy
 
 
NGC 1302
FOR
 
 
 galaxy
 
 
NGC 1499
PER
Nov. 3, 1885
6" Rr v
emission nebula
12, 26
Archenhold 1891
NGC 1721
ERI
Nov. 10, 1885
6" Rr v
galaxy
10
Swift 1885
NGC 1725
ERI
Nov. 10, 1885
6" Rr v
galaxy
10
Swift 1885
NGC 1728
ERI
Nov. 10, 1885
6" Rr v
galaxy
10
Swift 1885
NGC 1798
AUR
 
 
 open cluster
 
 
NGC 2141
ORI
 
 
 open cluster
 
 
NGC 2226
MON
 
 
 open cluster
 
 
NGC 2282
MON
Mar. 3, 1886
6" Rr v
reflexion nebula
11
IC 2172 Barnard
NGC 2568
PUP
1881
6" Rr v
open cluster
5, 8
 
NGC 2835
HYA
 
 
 galaxy
 
 
NGC 5584
VIR
Jul. 27, 1881
5" Rr v
galaxy
1, 3, 8
 
NGC 6302
SCO
1880
5" Rr v
planetary nebula
8, 33
Dunlop 567? 1826
NGC 6354
SCO
1884
6" Rr v
4 stars
4, 6
 
NGC 6822
SGR
Aug. 17, 1884
5" Rr v
galaxy
7, 9
IC 4895 Wolf 1906
IC 48
CET
Nov. 30, 1888
12" Rr v
galaxy
19
IC 1577 Barnard
IC 336
TAU
Dec. 6, 1893
6" Rr p
emission nebula
24
 
IC 341
TAU
Dec. 6, 1893
6" Rr p
emission nebula
24
 
IC 349
TAU
Nov. 14, 1890
36" Rr v
reflexion nebula
16
 
IC 351
PER
Dec. 5, 1893
36" Rr v
planetary nebula
15
 
IC 353
TAU
Dec. 6, 1893
6" Rr p
emission nebula
24
 
IC 354
TAU
Dec. 6, 1893
6" Rr p
emission nebula
24
 
IC 356
CAM
Aug. 23, 1889
12" Rr v
galaxy
19
Denning 1890
IC 360
TAU
Dec. 6, 1893
6" Rr p
emission nebula
24
 
IC 412
ORI
 
 
 galaxy
 
IC 2123 Barnard, Javelle 1894
IC 413
ORI
 
 
 galaxy
 
IC 2124 Barnard, Javelle 1894
IC 446
MON
Jan. 24, 1894
 
 reflexion nebula
22a 
IC 2167 Barnard
IC 447
MON
Jan. 24, 1894
 
 reflexion nebula
22a 
IC 2169 Barnard
IC 492
CNC
Feb. 5, 1891
12" Rr v
galaxy
17
Spitaler 9.2.1891, Javelle 1892
IC 917
UMA
Summer 1892
36" Rr v
star
13
 
IC 918
UMA
Summer 1892
36" Rr v
2 stars
13
 
IC 919
UMA
Summer 1892
36" Rr v
galaxy
13
 
IC 921
UMA
Summer 1892
36" Rr v
galaxy
13
 
IC 922
UMA
Summer 1892
36" Rr v
galaxy
13
 
IC 923
UMA
Summer 1892
36" Rr v
galaxy
13
 
IC 925
UMA
Summer 1892
36" Rr v
galaxy
13
 
IC 926
UMA
Summer 1892
36" Rr v
galaxy
13
 
IC 928
UMA
Summer 1892
36" Rr v
galaxy
13
 
IC 929
UMA
Summer 1892
36" Rr v
galaxy
13
 
IC 930
UMA
Summer 1892
36" Rr v
galaxy
13
 
IC 931
UMA
Summer 1892
36" Rr v
galaxy
13
 
IC 932
UMA
Summer 1892
36" Rr v
galaxy
13
 
IC 934
UMA
Summer 1892
36" Rr v
galaxy
13
IC 936 Barnard
IC 935
UMA
Summer 1892
36" Rr v
star
13
 
IC 937
UMA
Summer 1892
36" Rr v
galaxy
13
 
IC 938
UMA
Summer 1892
36" Rr v
galaxy
13
 
IC 1274
SGR
Jun. 25, 1892
6" Rr p
emission nebula
22
IC 1275 Barnard
IC 1283
SGR
Jun. 1892
6" Rr p
emission nebula
22
 
IC 1284
SGR
Mar. 31, 1892
6" Rr p
emission nebula
20
 
IC 1287
SCT
Jun. 29, 1892
6" Rr p
reflexion nebula
22
 
IC 1296
LYR
Oct. 2, 1893
36" Rr v
galaxy
23
 
IC 1318
CYG
 
 
 emission nebula
 
 
IC 1396
CEP
Summer 1893
6" Rr p 
 emission nebula
 
 
IC 1459
GRU
 
 
 galaxy
 
IC 5265 Swift 1896
IC 1475
SCL
 
 
 star
 
 
IC 1534
AND
Dec. 5, 1888
12" Rr v
galaxy
30
 
IC 1535
AND
Dec. 5, 1888
12" Rr v
galaxy
30
 
IC 1536
AND
Dec. 5, 1888
12" Rr v
galaxy
30
 
IC 1756
CET
 
 
 galaxy
 
 
IC 1757
CET
 
 
 galaxy
 
 
IC 1766
TRI
 
 
 galaxy
 
 
IC 1772
PSC
 
 
 galaxy
 
 
IC 1789
TRI
 
 
 galaxy
 
 
IC 1795
CAS
 
 
 emission nebula
 
 
IC 1802
ARI
 
 
 galaxy
 
 
IC 1803
ARI
 
 
 galaxy
 
 
IC 1804
ARI
 
 
 galaxy
 
 
IC 1805
CAS
 
 
 open cluster
 
 
IC 1824
CAS
 
 
 star group
 
 
IC 1848
CAS
 
 
 open cluster
 
 
IC 1851
CAS
 
 
 emission nebula
 
 
IC 1861
ARI
 
 
 galaxy
 
 
IC 1870
ERI
 
 
 galaxy
 
 
IC 1871
CAS
 
 
 emission nebula
 
 
IC 1934
PER
Sep. 16, 1901
40" Rr v
galaxy
29
 
IC 1995
TAU
 
 
 reflexion nebula
 
 
IC 2016
TAU
 
 
 galaxy
 
 
IC 2031
ERI
 
 
 galaxy
 
 
IC 2087
TAU
Jan. 18, 1892
12" Rr v
reflexion nebula
34
 
IC 2104
LEP
 
 
 galaxy
 
 
IC 2144
TAU
 
 
 emission nebula
 
 
IC 2162
ORI
 
 
 emission nebula
 
 
IC 2166
LYN
 
 
 galaxy
 
 
IC 2171
CMA
 
 
 not found
 
 
IC 2193
GEM
Mar. 12, 1888
12" Rr v
galaxy
28
 
IC 2194
GEM
Mar. 9, 1888
12" Rr v
galaxy
28
Javelle 1898
IC 2196
GEM
Mar. 9, 1888
12" Rr v
galaxy
28
Javelle 1898
IC 2197
GEM
Mar. 9, 1888
12" Rr v
galaxy
28
 
IC 2199
GEM
Mar. 9, 1888
12" Rr v
galaxy
28
 
IC 2226
CNC
 
 
 galaxy
 
 
IC 2367
PUP
 
 
 galaxy
 
 
IC 2388
CNC
 
 
 galaxy
 
 
IC 2390
CNC
 
 
 galaxy
 
 
IC 2489
HYA
 
 
 not found
 
 
IC 4437
BOO
 
 
 star
 
 
IC 4536
LIB
 
 
 galaxy
 
 
IC 4537
SER
 
 
 galaxy
 
 
IC 4562
BOO
Aug. 20, 1890
12" Rr v
galaxy
31
 
IC 4564
BOO
Aug. 20, 1890
12" Rr v
galaxy
31
 
IC 4565
BOO
Aug. 20, 1890
12" Rr v
galaxy
31
 
IC 4566
BOO
Aug. 20, 1890
12" Rr v
galaxy
31
 
IC 4567
BOO
Aug. 20, 1890
12" Rr v
galaxy
31
 
IC 4587
CRB
Apr. 27, 1903
40" Rr v
galaxy
35
 
IC 4591
SCO
Mar. 23, 1895
6" Rr p
reflexion nebula
25
 
IC 4592
SCO
Mar. 23, 1895
6" Rr p
reflexion nebula
25
 
IC 4601
SCO
 
 
 reflexion nebula
 
Stewart 1898
IC 4603
OPH
Mar. 23, 1895
6" Rr p
reflexion nebula
25
 
IC 4604
OPH
Mar. 23, 1895
6" Rr p
reflexion nebula
25
 
IC 4605
SCO
Mar. 23, 1895
6" Rr p
reflexion nebula
25
 
IC 4617
HER
 
 
 galaxy
 
 
IC 4627
OPH
 
 
 galaxy
 
 
IC 4628
SCO
 
 
 emission nebula
 
Frost 1903
IC 4645
HER
 
 
 galaxy
 
 
IC 4657
OPH
 
 
 emission nebula
 
 
IC 4659
OPH
 
 
 not found
 
 
IC 4673
SGR
Aug. 19, 1895
36" Rr v
planetary nebula
27
 
IC 4676
OPH
 
 
 galaxy
 
 
IC 4677
DRA
 
 
 planetary nebula
 
 
IC 4678
SGR
Aug. 1905
10" Rr p
emission nebula
36
 
IC 4681
SGR
Aug. 1905
10" Rr p
emission nebula
36
IC 4684 Barnard
IC 4685
SGR
Aug. 1905
10" Rr p
open cluster
36
 
IC 4688
OPH
 
 
 galaxy
 
 
IC 4691
OPH
 
 
 galaxy
 
 
IC 4701
SGR
Aug. 1905
10" Rr p
emission nebula
36
 
IC 4706
SGR
Aug. 1905
10" Rr p
emission nebula
36
 
IC 4707
SGR
Aug. 1905
10" Rr p
emission nebula
36
 
IC 4715
SGR
Aug. 1905
10" Rr p
star group
36
 
IC 4954
VUL
 
 
 reflexion nebula
 
 
IC 4955
VUL
 
 
 reflexion nebula
 
 
IC 4999
CAP
 
 
 galaxy
 
 
IC 5005
CAP
 
 
 galaxy
 
 
IC 5089
AQR
 
 
 galaxy
 
 
IC 5144
PEG
 
 
 galaxy
 
 
IC 5145
PEG
 
 
 galaxy
 
 
IC 5191
LAC
Dec. 5, 1888
12" Rr v
galaxy
30
 
IC 5192
LAC
Dec. 5, 1888
12" Rr v
galaxy
30
 
IC 5193
LAC
Dec. 5, 1888
12" Rr v
galaxy
30
 
IC 5255
LAC
 
 
 not found
 
 
IC 5259
LAC
 
 
 not found
 
 
IC 5268
LAC
 
 
 star group
 
 
IC 5351
PSC
Oct. 28, 1889
36" Rr v
galaxy
32
 
IC 5352
PSC
Oct. 28, 1889
36" Rr v
galaxy
32
 
IC 5356
PSC
Oct. 28, 1889
36" Rr v
galaxy
32
 
IC 5357
PSC
Oct. 28, 1889
36" Rr v
galaxy
32
 
IC 5359
PSC
Oct. 28, 1889
36" Rr v
galaxy
32
 
IC 5366
CAS
 
 
 emission nebula
 
 

 

There are objects, where Barnard is mentioned by Dreyer, but were discovered by others (due to identities) or found twice by Barnard.

Tab. 2: Objects, discovered by others or or identities. (B) are data for Barnard. Ref see Tab. 3.

Object
Identity
Discoverer
Con
Date (B)
Instr (B)
Type
Ref (B)
Rem
NGC 1723
 
Tempel 1882
ERI
Nov. 10, 1885
6" Rr v
galaxy
10
 
NGC 5824
NGC 5834
LUP
Jun. 29, 1886
6" Rr v
galaxy
11
 
NGC 6352
 
Dunlop 1826
ARA
   
 globular cluster
 
 
IC 11
NGC 281
Barnard
CAS
   
 emission nebula
 
 
IC 59
 
Wolf Dec. 1893
CAS
Feb. 6, 1894
6" Rr p
emission nebula
22a
 
IC 63
 
Wolf Dec. 1893
CAS
Feb. 6, 1894
6" Rr p
emission nebula
22a
 
IC 443
 
Wolf 1892
GEM
Feb. 1, 1894
 
 supernova remnant
22a
 
IC 444
 
Wolf 1892
GEM
Feb. 1, 1894
 
 reflexion nebula
22a
 
IC 936
IC 934
Barnard
UMA
Summer 1892
36" Rr v
galaxy
13
 
IC 1122
  Bigourdan 1889
SER
May 15, 1890
12" Rr v
galaxy
14
 
IC 1275
IC 1274
Barnard
SGR
Jun. 25, 1892
6" Rr p
emission nebula
22
 
IC 1470
 
Spitaler Mar. 20, 1892
CEP
Mar. 21, 1892
12" Rr v
emission nebula
18, 21
 
IC 1577
IC 48
Barnard
CET
   
 galaxy
 
 
IC 1656
NGC 447
PSC
   
 galaxy
 
 
IC 1661
NGC 451
Stephan 1883
PSC
   
 galaxy
 
 
IC 1712
NGC 584
CET
   
 galaxy
 
 
IC 1765
NGC 783
Stephan 1877
TRI
   
 galaxy
 
 
IC 1883
NGC 1212
Swift 1884
PER
   
 galaxy
 
 
IC 1884
IC 290
Swift 1888
PER
   
 galaxy
 
 
IC 1887
IC 292
Swift 1888
PER
   
 galaxy
 
 
IC 1888
IC 293
Swift 1888
PER
   
 galaxy
 
 
IC 1889
IC 294, 295, 296
Swift 1888
PER
   
 galaxy
 
 
IC 1985
IC 348
Safford 1866-68
PER
   
 open cluster
 
 
IC 2113
NGC 1730
Swift 1886
LEP
   
 galaxy
 
Stone 1886
IC 2123
IC 412
Barnard
ORI
   
 galaxy
 
 
IC 2124
IC 413
Barnard
ORI
   
 galaxy
 
 
IC 2167
IC 446
Barnard
MON
   
 reflexion nebula
 
 
IC 2169
IC 447
Barnard
MON
   
 reflexion nebula
 
 
IC 2172
NGC 2282
Barnard
MON
   
 reflexion nebula
 
 
IC 4625
NGC 6240
Stephan 1870
OPH
   
 galaxy
 
Bigourdan
IC 4684
IC 4681
Barnard
SGR
Summer 1905
10" Rr p
emission nebula
36
 
IC 4690
NGC 6589
Swift 1885
SGR
Summer 1905
10" Rr p
reflexion nebula
36
 
IC 4700
NGC 6590, NGC 6595
J. Herschel (NGC 6590)
SGR
Summer 1905
10" Rr p
emission nebula
36
Swift 1885 (NGC 6590)
IC 5327
IC 1495
Javelle 1891
AQR
   
 galaxy
 
 
IC 5368
IC 1523
Burnham 1890
PSC
   
 galaxy
 
 

 

Tab. 3: References

1
 
Sid. Mess. I, 135 (1883)
2
 
Sid. Mess. II, 226 (1883-84)
3
A new Nebula near Phi Virginis
AN [2490] 104, 285 (1883)
4
A New Faint Nebula
Obs. 7, 269 (1884)
5
 
Sid. Mess. III, 60 (1884)
6
 
Sid. Mess. III, 184 (1884)
7
 
Sid. Mess. III, 254 (1884)
8
New Nebulae. - Small blach hole in the milky-way
AN [2588] 108, 369-372 (1884)
9
New Nebula near General Catalogue No. 4510
AN [2624] 110, 125 (1885)
10
A Correction to Dr. Swift's list of New Nebulae in A.N. 2746
AN [2755] 115, 315-316 (1886)
11
Ring-Micrometer Observations of Comets and Nebulae
AN [2756] 115, 323-328 (1886)
12
 
Sid. Mess. V, 27 (1886)
13
A cluster of eighteen small Nebulae discovered with the 36inch Refractor of the Lick Observatory
AN [2998] 125, 379 (1890)
14
Observations of (181) Eucharis, and of some small stars near the path of Eucharis, and of a new Nebula
AN [3004] 126, 53-56 (1891)
15
A new Planetary Nebula
AN [3017] 126, 277 (1891)
16
On the Nebulosities of the Pleiades and on a New Merope Nebula
AN [3018] 126, 293 (1891)
17
On an Early Search for Winnecke's Comet before Perhelion
AN [3038] 127, 231 (1891)
18
A New Nebula
AJ 11, 168 (1892)
19
Two Probably Variable Nebulae
AN [3097] 130, 7 (1892)
20
A New Nebulous Star, and Corrections to Dreyer's NGC
AN [3101] 130, 77-80 (1892)
21
The nebula (1892.0): 23h0m40s +5939.7'
AN [3110] 130, 223 (1892)
22
Photographic Nebulosities and Groups of Nebulous Stars
AN [3111] 130, 233 (1892)
22a
Photographic Nebulosities and Star Clusters connected with the Milky Way
Astron. & Astro-Phys. 13, 177 (1894)
23
On a small Nebula close to M. 57
AN [3200] 134, 129 (1894)
24
On the exterior Nebulosities of the Pleiades
AN [3253] 136, 193 (1894)
25
On a great photographic nebula near Antares
AN [3301] 138, 211-214 (1895)
26
Photograph of the Nebula N.G.C. near the Star Xi Persei
ApJ 2, 350 (1895)
27
New Planetary Nebula
AN [3315] 139, 43 (1896)
28
Nebulas near Castor
AJ 18, 112 (1897)
29
Peculiarity of Focal Observations of the Planetary Nebulae and Visual Observations of Nova Persei with the Forty-inch Yerkes Telescope
ApJ 14, 151-157 (1901)
30
Groups of small Nebulae
AN [4136] 173, 117-121 (1907)
31
Group of small Nebulae
AN [4136] 173, 121 (1907)
32
On a group of small Nebulae
AN [4136] 173, 121 (1907)
33
 
AN [4136] 173, 123 (1907)
34
On a Nebulous Groundwork in the Constellation Taurus
ApJ 25, 218-225 (1907)
35
A Nebula near the Nova [T Coronae]
ApJ 25, 281-282 (1907)
36
Some notes on nebulae and nebulosities
AN [4239] 177, 231-236 (1908)

 

Dyer Observatory (Vanderbilt), Nashville and 6" Cooke-Refractor

Lick Observatory (Mt. Hamilton) with 12" and 36" Refractor

Yerkes Observatory with 10" Bruce Astrograph and great 40" refractor